Do You Lose Weight By Not Eating?

Many people ask: Do you lose weight by not eating?  You think that the quickest way to lose weight is to cut out almost all food from your daily diet or stop eating completely.  In theory, it may make sense that if you restrict your calorie intake by starving yourself, you will lose the weight at a rapid rate.  Sure, you will lose weight because when you do not feed your body; your body will pretty much do something to feed itself in order to provide you some nourishment. You do not want that to happen, do you?

As a result, your body goes into what is known as “survival mode” and your metabolic rate drastically slows down for conversation purposes.  Then, once you have lost your desired amount of weight, you tend to revert to your previous diet.  Since you tried to lose weight by not eating, your metabolic rate is now slower than it previously was.  After torturing yourself by starvation, you now pose this yo-yo consequence, which entails that you are going to bounce back to your normal weight or even twice as much as you weigh initially.


Hey, pause right here and understand this section really well! Losing weight by starving yourself practically waves some red flags.  The recommended healthy weight loss is 1-2 pounds per week and losing weight rapidly through starvation is too dangerous. Here are more reasons why:

    • Depriving your body of proper nutrition will have more negative effects on your health than positive. It can lead to malnutrition and health problems as our body requires regular consumption of vitamins, minerals, fibers, proteins and even fats (the good one).
    • Non-eating practices and starvation diets deprive the body of the nutrients needed for conditioned and healthy organs specifically the heart, lungs and liver. Thus, depriving oneself from eating can be fatal where it can lead to serious cardio, circulatory and respiratory issues. And again, yes it can lead to weight gain.


  • When your body stops getting food, the weight you will lose (which is not much) will be mostly water and muscle tissue.  This is very bad because not only will you have to start eating again but since you now have less muscle, you’ll have a slower metabolism compared before which will hinder weight loss; as a result you gain even more fat on top of the fat that your body stored while you fasted.
  • Starvation dieting robs the body of needed glucose levels.  Blood glucose  is the preferred energy of our brains so starvation can cause headaches and unhealthy side effects like fainting, depression, irritability, rashes, reduced sex drive, and hair loss. Hypoglycemia can lead to death when taken for granted.
  • Without the needed nutrients of your body, the proteins, vitamins and minerals, you will have little energy for any healthy physical activity so you end up weak and ineffective.  If you really want to lose weight, do it the healthy way, the right way.

Here are some simple tips to lose weight the healthy way:

  • Instead of not eating, eat small portion of food every few hours.
  • Do not skip breakfast because it is the most important meal of the day. Eat fruits and vegetables if you can.
  • Eat less carbohydrates.
  • Exercise: either you jog, do yoga, workout; just get off that lazy butt off the couch!
  • Drink lots of fluid, especially water.

So the next time you even think about starving yourself, think twice or thrice.  The secret is simple, instead of not eating at all, you eat! Eat frequently with the right food and right amount, and for sure, you will get those extra pounds off quickly.


Famous Foreign Chemists and Their Significant Contributions

Chemistry is something present in each and every aspect of your life. Whether it’s the food you eat, the clothes you wear or the car you drive, from the smallest to the biggest thing of this world can be defined in terms of compounds, chemical reactions, and bonding between different elements.

We have been able to get to the core of each and every thing around us because of the work of several geniuses spread over a time period of centuries. Here we talk about some of the famous foreign chemists who have helped make this world into a more tangible place to live in.

John Dalton- Born in 1766, Sir John Dalton made a great contribution to the field of chemistry with his discovery of atoms, development of John Dalton’s atomic theory, and the findings related to color blindness. He was the one who defined atom as a fundamental unit of matter which can neither be created nor destroyed. He also mentioned that atoms of one element differ from atoms of other elements.

Marie Curie- The name of Marie Curie seems to be synonymous with chemistry and that is not without any reason. Born as a Polish in 1867, she later acquired French citizenship. Curie is renowned for her discoveries in the field of radioactivity. She was the one who discovered the radioactive elements radium and polonium and was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the same. She had earlier been awarded the Nobel Prize for her work in the field of physics in the year 1903.

Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev- No chemistry book is completed with a periodic table as an annexure. A Russian chemist Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev charted the first periodic table, which has since been modified by successive chemists. Mendeleev already knew that there was scope for improvement which is why he designed in a way that there was scope to fit in new or yet-to-be found elements. Originally there were 68 elements in increasing order of the atomic weight and similar properties in the Mendeleev periodic table.

Amedeo Avogadro- Avogardo was born in Italy in the year 1776 and is well known for proposing the Avogadro’s Law stating that “equal volumes of gases contain the equal number of molecules when the given temperature and pressure are same for all the gases.” The number of molecules also called Avogadro’s number is 6.023 x 1023.

Joseph Louis Gay–Lussac– A French chemist and physicist born in 1778, he gave the Gay-Lussacs Law regarding gases which says “At constant mass and pressure values, the volume of a gas increases linearly with temperature.”[ad#728-90 after post]

Jons Jacob Berzelius– The technique of chemical formula notations which has been helping millions of chemistry students understand the subject easily was given by Swedish chemist Jons Jacob Berzelius. He also proposed the law of constant proportions, which was used to prove that inorganic substances are made of elements that are in constant proportion by weight.

Michael Faraday– Students of electrochemistry and electromagnetism would not forget Michael Faraday, an English chemist and physicist born in 1779. He was also instrumental in discovering the aromatic compound benzene.

Henri Louis Le Chatelier– A French chemist born in 1850, he proposed the principle for chemical equilibrium, known as the Le Chatelier’s principle.
Svante Arrhenius- Born in 1859, Svante Arrhenius was the one who proposed the Arrhenius equation. He also proposed that salt dissociates into ions when in a solution even in the absence of an electric current.

Ernest Rutherford- Popular as the father of nuclear physics, Ernest Rutherford was a British-New Zealand chemist and physicist. He was the one who discovered the concept of half life in radioactive substances. He received the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1908 for his work. Later, he postulated planetary model or Rutherford model for structure of an atom. He also tried splitting of an atom and its nucleus.

Dorothy Mary Hodgkin- Born in 1910, Dorothy Mary Hodgkin was a British chemist who used X-ray crystallography to define the structures of biomolecules. She won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for her work in protein crystallography.

These were just a few of the famous foreign chemists who have helped bring clarity into the things and processes around us.[ad#afterpost]

What Animals Have Been Cloned?


Dolly, the first mammal to be cloned (Wikimedia Image)

It was in 1996 the world woke up to the news of a sheep named Dolly created through a technique called cloning. Dolly was a carbon copy of another sheep and this started a debate on should scientists be acting like God and producing animals and humans on order.

Cloning is done by removal of DNA from an ovum and replacing it with the DNA of an adult animal. The fertilized ovum is implanted in a womb and an identical or clone animal can be produced. However, the technique is fraught with risks. The cloned animals have been known to carry genetic disorders and have a comparatively short lifespans.

Not many people know that Dolly was not the first animal to have been cloned by scientists. Way back in 1958, scientist John Gurdon claimed to have cloned a frog by using intact nuclei from somatic cells of a Xenopus tadpole. In 1963, Chinese embryologist Tong Dizhou created the first fish clone by inserting the DNA from a male Asian carp into the egg of a female Asian carp. Dizhou went on to create the first interspecies carp clone by inserting Asian carp DNA into a European crucian carp in 1973. In 1986, a mouse named Masha became the first mammal to be cloned using embryo cell.

However, Dolly is still regarded as the most significant achievement in the history of cloning because she was the first mammal to have been cloned using adult cells. Before her, cells extracted from an embryo were being used to create a clone. The success of the Dolly experiment also resulted in a fierce competition among various research groups who started cloning one animal after another.

Scientists at the University of Hawaii created Cumulina, the first mouse clone using adult cells, within one year of Dolly’s birth in 1997.[ad#co-1]

The first cloned calf was also born in the same year and later kept at Minnesota Zoo Education Center. In 1999, Dr Xiangzhong (Jerry) Yang cloned a Holstein heifer named Amy by using ear skin cells from a high-merit cow named Aspen at the University of Connecticut. He followed it up by three additional clones, Betty, Cathy and Daisy in the same year.

The year 1999 saw birth of Second Chance, a Brahman bull which was cloned from a celebrity bull Chance at the Texas A&M University. The research centre was also successful in cloning a Black Angus bull named 86 Squared 15 using cells from his donor, Bull 86, which were frozen in 2000. Just like its parent, the cloned bull also exhibited natural resistance to tuberculosis, brucellosis, and other diseases which can be transmitted to meat.

Five Scottish piglets were created using cloning technique in 2000. In 2001, cloning was done to save Gaur, an endangered species of wild cattle. It was born from a surrogate domestic cow mother at the Trans Ova Genetics in Sioux Center, Iowa, USA. However, the clone died within two days.

The year 2001 saw intensified activity in the field of cloning with birth of two female jersey cows Millie and Emma at the University of Tennessee. They were the first cows to be produced using standard cell-culturing techniques.

In the same year a cat called CopyCat was cloned at Texas A&M University. Though the DNAs of both the clone and the host were same, they had different personalities. Around 10 more Jersey cows were cloned at the University of Tennessee in 2002 while the first commercially cloned cat, Little Nicky, was created by Genetic Savings & Clone in 2004.

In 2003, a Boer goat was cloned at Texas A&M University. In the same year, three male mules were cloned for the first time while a rabbit was also cloned in France.

The year also saw the birth of a first cloned deer named Dewey at Texas A&M University while in 2005 South Korean scientist Hwang Woo-Suk cloned the first dog, Snuppy, an afghan hound. South Korean scientists went on to clone sniffer dogs.

Anatolian Grey bull called Efe was cloned in Turkey along with world’s first buffalo calf through the “hand guided cloning technique” in the year 2009. Next year, the first Spanish fighting bull was cloned by Spanish scientists.

The cloning experiments on animals are still on around the world while there are some unverified claims of human cloning too.[ad#afterpost]

What Causes Widow’s Peak Hair?

Steven Seagal has a prominent widow's peak hairline

Steven Seagal has a prominent widow's peak hairline (Wikimedia Image)

Leonardo DiCaprio, Keanu Reeves, Steven Seagal and John Travalota, what do they have in common? Besides being handsome Hollywood superstars, all three have similar hairline. The ‘V’ shape at the center of their heads, popularly known as ‘widow’s peak’, gives a unique and mysterious look to these stars. Look around and you will find both men and women with such a pointed hairline.

While many attribute this natural hair style to particular personalities, historical references suggest that a woman with such a hairline will outlive her husband because the shape is identical to a peaked hood worn by women in mourning. This is why the name ‘widow’s peak’.

However, both men and women can have a widow’s peak hairline and no particular trend either related to deaths of their spouses or personality trait has been observed with those possessing it.

It’s only Hollywood which has used the trait to indicate dark inner qualities or evil character. Whether it’s serial killer Hannibal Lecter or Batman’s foe, the Joker, they all have got widow’s peak to signify wickedness. Some actresses, including Marilyn Monroe, Drew Barrymore and Sandra Bullock have also got widow’s peak but this feature of theirs has not been fully exploited.

Genetics of widow’s peak hair

Largely, researchers believe that widow’s peak is linked to genetics. However, even this has been categorized as a myth by another small group of scientists who say that the theory has not been proved in field. But since no further work has been done in this area, not much is known about the real and definite cause.

It is believed that widow’s peak is a classic sign of male-pattern baldness. Men with this disorder have a receding frontline from the corners and hence the front becomes more prominent. The condition progresses with age but even men in their 20s can have widow’s peak.

Men are genetically predisposed to male pattern baldness. The level of dihydrotestosterone or DHT, which is a byproduct of the male hormone testosterone, builds up in their scalps resulting in hair loss. DHT not only blocks nutrients from reaching the hair follicles, it also reduces the size of these follicles resulting in thinning of hair. Hence, follicles keep shrinking and in the end become permanently inactive.

Heredity is the main reason for a person to be predisposed towards baldness and genes from both paternal and maternal sides decide your chances of getting bald. The greater the number of bald people in your ancestry, the greater are the chances of you experiencing hair loss.[ad#co-1]

Possible treatment

Doctors generally use an over-the-counter topical treatment called Minoxidil which can actually help slow the rate of hair loss and also grow new hair in selected cases. Other oral medications may be more effective but have adverse impact on sexual functioning. However, none of the treatment options have long lasting benefits.

Currently, doctors are relying more on hair transplants and other methods of hair improvement rather than medications for greater effect.

Transplant surgery requires removal of hair follicles from back of the head and its transplantation to the areas which has less or no hair. Back-of-head hair follicles are used because it is believed they are not affected by the action of DHT.

The transplanted follicles again sprout healthy hair while the back of the head from where the follicles are retrieved also gets back the normal look on its own.

Genetics of widow’s peak notwithstanding, many don’t consider it as botheration and they flaunt their widow’s peak with elan Who would actually want Leonardo DiCaprio to do away with his widow peak when we know that it lends a unique appeal to his face and personality?[ad#afterpost]

Is Tongue Rolling Genetic?

Tongue rolling

Tongue rolling (Rochelle/Flickr)

Can you roll your tongue into shape of a test tube? Do you get dry ear wax? Do you have cleft chin? Can you wiggle your ears? When you clasp your hands which thumb lands up on the top? These questions may seem innocuous and unwarranted but a whole lot of researchers are scratching their heads on these puzzles which many believe is linked to genetics.

So can you really roll your tongue into shape of a tube? Not many people can but then they do have friends who can and this difference some researchers say is because of genetics. Biology students are taught that tongue rolling is the simplest way to explain inherited genes. Those who can roll their tongues have inherited the gene from their tongue-rolling parents while those who can’t also have parents who can’t roll their tongues. You have got your genes from your parents and even if one of the parents has the tongue-rolling gene, you will be able to roll your tongue.

It’s not so easy to explain

The explanation is not as simple as it is made it out to be and your biology teacher might be wrong after all because there are people who can roll their tongues while their parents can’t. Another research study done by Matlock in 1952 concluded that identical twins don’t always share the tongue-rolling trait. Identical twins are known to have identical DNAs and hence should also share the ability to roll the tongue if they have same genes.  In 1975, another researcher demonstrated that identical twins are no more likely to share tongue-rolling than are fraternal twins. This gives birth to the idea that environment is also a major factor. Both the twins might be having the gene but it is not expressed in one of them due to absence of an environmental trigger.

The environmental trigger theory has also found takers in several other conditions like autoimmune disorders. People are known to be predisposed to them but these disorders are manifested in only those who encounter particular environmental triggers stress, pollution or specific disorders.[ad#co-1]

Another theory regarding tongue rolling is that there might be another gene called modifier gene which is controlling the expression of tongue rolling gene. So there can be parents who possess the gene to roll their tongues but still they can’t roll them because the modifier gene in them is off. Now their child can have the ability to roll the tongue if they modifier gene is not passed on.

All these explanations may seem confusing but that’s not the end of the whole story. Tomorrow some new research may prove that all the above propositions are wrong and there is some new factor that defines tongue rolling. Meanwhile, surveys done by biologists have put forth interesting data related to tongue rolling. It was found that in Spain 67 per cent of females can roll their tongues compared to just 64 per cent of the male population. However, Spanish men are better at wiggling their ears. Around 20 per cent of them can wiggle their ears as compared to 10 per cent of women. Another Iranian researcher found that north England does not have many people who can roll their tongues and this, he believes, is because of genetic intermingling with the Scandinavians.

Whatever the final verdict be, it’s clear that if you can roll your tongue, genetics are involved in this ability of yours. However, to what extent the power of genetics works in this scenario is not yet known. So, the picture is out but the contours are still being finalized.[ad#afterpost]

Health Benefits of Dragon Fruit

Dragon fruit

Dragon fruit

Having a mythical character as your namesake is a special privilege. However, dragon fruit has many more attributes to display than just the nomenclature. Full of fiber and water content, it is one of the best known health foods around. Dragon fruit, also known as Pitahaya, originated in Mexico and South America but its popularity spread far and wide. Today, the fruit is grown in several parts of the world including South China, Vietnam, Taiwan, Thailand, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Okinawa, Hawaii, Palestine and northern Australia.

Available across the world

The plant of dragon fruit gets attractive yellow flowers at night while the fruit itself has reddish, green tip with overlapping scales on its skin. The inner portion is similar in taste to watermelon, pear and kiwi. There are several varieties of the fruit available with diverse skins and inner edible parts. It can be either eaten raw, mixed in juices, served in salads or preserved to make jams and sauces. Just slice the fruit into two and scoop out the flesh since the skin is not edible. Middle of the fruit is the sweetest part which you can keep for later as a dessert.

However, taste is not the best of things it offers. By cherishing the dragon fruit you get lots of beneficial nutrients which are easily absorbed by the human body. The fruit contains carotene, Vitamin C, B, calcium, iron, phosphorous, protein, fiber, and carbohydrates. It does have a small amount of fat too which is contained in its small black seeds all of which can’t be removed manually. Luckily, most of the fat is monounsaturated variety which is beneficial for your body.

Health benefits abound

The most prominent among dragon fruit health benefits is its effectiveness in controlling blood sugar in people with type 2 diabetes. So besides the medications and exercise that your doctor recommends, taking dragon fruit as your natural treatment may help manage the blood sugar in a more effective way. Being sweet in taste, the fruit also helps control craving for sugar. For pre-diabetics, it can be a part of preventive treatment along with exercise.

Being high on vitamin C, dragon fruit heals cuts and bruises very fast and strengthens the body’s immune system also. The high concentration of antioxidants helps prevent formation of cancer-causing free radicals. On the other hand, dietary fiber improves digestion and vitamin B2 enhances appetite. Vitamin B1 metabolizes carbs to give you instant energy which is why it can be a good energy filler before or after a workout. The high protein content in dragon fruit acts as a bonus for exercisers since not only it helps build muscles but also fastens body’s metabolism thus preventing weight gain.

Due to its detoxifying effect, the fruit neutralizes toxic substances like heavy metals. According to various research studies, the dragon fruit is great for the circulatory system and it also neutralizes toxicity in the blood besides helping in prevention of colon cancer.

Its consumption reduces cholesterol levels and manages high blood pressure. If that was not all, the regular intake of dragon fruit also helps fight cough and asthma thus proving to be highly beneficial in managing chronic disorders too.

The cosmetic and health industries have also jumped the bandwagon by coming up with various products containing extracts of dragon fruit. Because it has high antioxidant levels, the fruit is known to be good for skin while good dose of other nutrients helps improve the eyesight. Other products containing extract of dragon fruit claim to be beneficial in strengthening bones and teeth besides helping in tissue formation because of rich haul of calcium and phosphorus in the fruit.

So enjoy and revel in the dragon fruit health benefits.


Health Benefits of Cabbage



The humble cabbage is a perfect representative of a green leafy vegetable because not only it is green in colour but also a bundle of leaves put together by crafty hands of nature. Cabbage is savoured by all and sundry across the globe as an important part of cultural cuisines, adding it either as an ingredient or an accompaniment.

From Chinese chowmein and US burgers to Mediterranean salads, the cabbage is omnipresent. Besides the variety it presents in terms of taste, the cabbage health benefits are widespread.

Being high on roughage, cabbage is great for any disorder of the tummy. Whether it is constipation or stomach ulcer, the vegetable treats them all naturally. It also prevents various other disorders including headache, intestinal cancer, indigestion and resultant loss of appetite, skin diseases, eczema and ageing which could have originated from lack of fibre.

Isothiocyanates in cabbage are also helpful in proper regulation of gut bacteria which can damage the stomach lining.

Steamed cabbage can offer you better variety of fibre which binds with bile acids in your digestive tracts and throws them out, thus resulting in lowering of cholesterol levels. Steamed cabbage even scores over the effect of a cholesterol-lowering drug and it was found that the vegetable bound 17 percent more bile acids than the drug. Lowering of cholesterol also works well for your cardiovascular health since it reduces the possibility plaque deposits in the arteries.

With vitamin C much more than equal amount of orange, cabbage offers an effective cure for scurvy, which is recognised by symptoms of spongy and bleeding gums, cracked lip corners, very weak immune system and frequent infections. Vitamin C also reduces the levels of free radicals in your body thus preventing ageing and also repairing wear and tear of the body. Being high on antioxidants means cabbage is good in dealing with certain cancers while sulphur in the vegetable helps strengthen the immune system in its fight against infections and delayed healing of wounds and damaged tissues.

Cabbage is a good detoxifier and its vitamin C and sulphur contents help purify the blood by removing free radicals and uric acid which is responsible for arthritis, gout, rheumatism, skin diseases and eczema.

Also being high on iodine, cabbage helps in effective functioning of the brain and the nervous system thus helping in prevention and treatment of brain disorders like Alzheimer’s. Iodine also keeps endocrinal glands in good condition. The cabbage health benefits even extend to treatment of varicose veins, leg ulcers and peptic ulcers. While its high in vitamin E content keeps the skin, eye and hair healthy, calcium, magnesium and potassium are very useful for overall health.

Cabbage is a great source of sinigrin, a component found to be of great help in prevention of bladder cancer, colon cancer, and prostate cancer. This is because it is rich in antioxidants, anti-inflammatory nutrients and glucosinolates all of which are well known villains of cancer.

Also, try to include different types of cabbage in your meal since red cabbage has high concentration phytonutrients than its green siblings.

Red cabbage has four times the amount of polyphenols and eight times the amount of vitamin C than that found in green one.

High levels of anthocyanins in red cabbage mean you can bid good bye to inflammatory compounds which can lead to chronic inflammation and hence give birth to various disorders including cancer, arthritis, heart disease and diabetes. Glucosinolates in cabbage are responsible for its protection against bladder cancer, breast cancer, colon cancer, and prostate cancer.

Cabbage can also be a good diet controller. Just finishing your leafy cabbage salad before gorging on to the more sinful food items would not only fill you up and hence check overeating, the health benefits will be far reaching.

Why Calves Hurt From Running?



You must have enjoyed watching Tom Hanks running miles without stopping in the movie Forrest Gump. Running has been a way of life for humans since the early age when they used to run continuously for hours to hunt for survival.

This passion for running is reflected in several men and women across the globe who like to run for fun or participate in competitive marathons. However, several enthusiasts quit running during first few days because their calves hurt from running. They need to understand that calf pain is the first hurdle they need to cross to fulfill their desire to run. There is no need to panic because the pain is transitory and there is no serious cause behind it.

Here we solve the puzzle of calf pain for you.

Everything is fine

First you need to understand that all kinds of exercises, whether running or weight training, lead to soreness and muscle pain. The main reason for pain is because your body gets surprised by sudden strain that it is put under.

Calf muscles are lean muscles at the back of your leg which can get injured or attain soreness because of any lower body activity including walking, running and improper weight distribution.

However, you will realize that the calves hurt from running only during the start of a practice. After you spend a few days running, the pain will subside as your body will get used to the physical strain. There is no real cure to prevent this pain so better bear it and grin all the way to the finish line. A good warm up exercise can, however, lower the amount of soreness you are likely to get from running.

Standing toe touches and the hurdler stretch are the best warm up exercises your calves can have. Standing toe touches is the most basic stretch everybody is likely to know about. Stand upright placing both feet together and slowly reach down to touch your toes without bending the knees. For hurdler stretch, sit straight up on the ground and straighten out one leg while the other is bent with the base of your foot touching the extended leg. Slowly try to touch your extended foot and hold for some seconds and change the legs alternately.

Building calve muscles is also a good option to avoid soreness. Carry a dumbbell in each hand and try standing up on your tippy toes before slowly going back to your level footed position. Do four sets of 10 reps each.

Other reasons

Your calves may also hurt because of other kinds of pain which may not be because of muscle soreness. This kind of pain is clearly distinguishable as it is much more severe. It can be due to torn or pulled muscle. This can be dealt with by employing the popular RICE technique which stands for Rest, Ice, Compression and Elevation.

You need to rest your legs as long as possible especially during the first 48 hours of getting an injury. Applying ice on your calves will help numb the pain by contracting the blood vessels. Remove the ice every few minutes allowing blood vessels to dilate and increase the amount of nutrient-rich blood reaching the affected area. This dilation and contraction of blood vessels will help in quick healing.

Wrapping your calf in a compression bandage will prevent swelling and also provide support to the area. Elevation is the last of this first aid process and also the most effective in prevention of swelling.

While sleeping or sitting, just put a pillow under your calves to reduce pressure on legs.

Cramps can also give you pain in the calves which will be sharp and infrequent. Cramps occur because of dehydration and loss of essential salts from the body. The most effective treatment against cramps is intake of liquids. Be sure to fill up on the liquids before getting on to your daily running routine.

Calf pain is not something you need to fret about while putting on those running shoes.

Famous Foreign Biologists and their Significant Contributions

Biology defines the life in and around us. Not only has the subject helped us understand ourselves better but the knowledge of reproduction, physiology, adaptation, disease and other aspects of the body has saved several lives, thereby promoting the cause of mankind.

Here we talk about famous foreign biologists who have left their footprints in this field.



Aristotle (Wikimedia Image)

Known as the great Greek philosopher, scientist and the teacher of Alexander, Aristotle is often called the father of biology. Born in 384 BC, he set up a framework of knowledge which served as the foundation for past and present science and philosophy. Since Alexander was his pupil, Aristotle was able to define plant and animal species from all parts of his vast empire. He wrote around 400 treatises including the ones written on motion of animals, gait of animals, parts of animals and generation of animals. Though these books had a tinge of error and myth, they were a good starting point for further research in the field of biology. One of Aristotle’s students Theophrastus compiled the most important works on botany written in that era.

Charles Darwin


Charles Robert Darwin (Wikimedia Image)

Born in early 19th century England, Charles Darwin is one of the most famous foreign biologists instrumental in progress of mankind with some of his time-tested theories on evolution and natural selection.He first served in 1831 as an unpaid naturalist in the Beagle, a ship that travelled around the world for five years. The trip helped Darwin observed the biological and geological environments of different parts of the world. During his stay at the Galápagos Islands, he got convinced about the theory of evolution of the species. Later, he went on to propose that natural selection is the engine of evolution. To support his theory, Darwin did several tests and found a supporter in Alfred Russell Wallace, a young naturalist who was also working on same ideas. In 1859 Darwin published ‘The Origin of Species’, which has been instrumental in changing the world.[ad#co-1]


Louis Pasteur

Louis Pasteur

Louis Pasteur (Wikinedia Image)

Pasteur has done a great service to humanity with his work in the field of medical science. Born in 1822, he was the one who gave us the germ theory and explained how infectious diseases affect us. He proposed changes in hospital practices and the improved sanitation standards helped save billions of lives. Pasteur also discovered the fact that fermentations are made by microbes which is why the term ‘pasteurisation’ came into being as an indication to killing of dangerous microbes in certain food items. He also developed vaccines against anthrax and rabies. When he died in 1895, Pasteur was given the state burial as a national hero.


Alexander Fleming

Alex Fleming

Alex Fleming (Wikimedia Image)

If Pasteur taught us about infections, Alexander Fleming introduced as to the world of antibiotics. Born in 1881, he was known for the discovery of penicillin, the world’s first antibiotic which helped saved millions of lives. Fleming observed the growth of Staphylococcus bacteria which was inhibited by a Penicillium mold that had accidentally contaminated the culture plate thus giving an idea that it can be used to help deal with bacterial infection in humans. At the end of World War II, a lot of hurt soldiers of the allied troops saved their lives thanks to penicillin. Fleming also discovered lysozyme, an antibacterial enzyme present in mucous secretions.

In 1945, he won the Nobel Prize for physiology and medicine along with Chain and Florey who had carried further research related to efficacy of Penicillin.

Erwin Chargaff

Erwin Chargaff

Erwin Chargaff (Wikimedia Image)

American biochemist and author Erwin Chargaff also worked in the same field and discovered the key facts necessary to determine the basic chemical structure of DNA.  Chargaff’s findings, along with those of Rosalind Franklin’s X-ray diffraction studies of DNA, strongly suggested that base-pairing existed within DNA.





Rita Levi-Montalcini

Rita Levi Montalcini

Rita Levi Montalcini (Wikimedia Image)

Born in Italy in 1909, Rita Levi-Montalcini was the one to discover nerve-growth factor (NGF), a protein instrumental in survival and growth of brain neurons. The discovery has helped in development of several medications to treat brain disorders.






Werner Arber

Werner Arber

Werner Arber (Wikimedia Image)

Swiss microbiologist and geneticist, Werner Arber was instrumental in discovery of restriction endonucleases, which led to the development of recombinant DNA technology.







More Famous Biologists



Side Effects of Mixing Bactrim With Alcohol

Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (Brand name: Bactrim)

Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (Brand name: Bactrim)

Drinking can be the most exciting part of your weekend. You just can’t wait to head to the bar, elbow your way through the crowd waiting to be served. Whether it’s beer, vodka, whisky, gin or rum, a couple of drinks make your life seem content. You express yourself freely to your friends and you have a sense of being powerful enough to achieve anything.


However, instead of any positive outcomes, you are soon vomiting, rashes appear on your skin, there is severe pain in your bones and you feel extremely fatigued.

Later, doctors diagnosed you had a dangerous combination of alcohol and Bactrim. You remember taking the medicine for the ear infection you had been having for some time. You are lucky to have been saved because the seemingly innocuous pastime of drinking when on Bactrim can be much more dangerous.

What is Bactrim

Bactrim is a common medicine used to treat bacterial infections but it has various side effects which is why caution is always advised. Bactrim generally contains sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim and is commonly recommended for cholera, diarrhea, urinary tract infections, ear infections, pneumonia, chronic bronchitis besides prostate and lung infections.

The main task of Bactrim, which has earned its infamy, is to check the bacteria’s ability to use folic acid. Due to its action on folic acid, Bactrim is not recommended to people with lack of folic acid, lactating mothers and infants under two months of age. Pregnant women are advised caution because folic acid is essential for normal development of the fetus.

People allergic to certain drugs including diabetes drugs, thiazide diuretics and sulfa drugs are advised against taking Bactrim because of increased chance of fatal allergic reaction. Those with renal or liver diseases can also be affected because Bactrim can have adverse impact on urine output.

Fever, cough, chills, sensitivity to light, diarrhea, loss of appetite, vomiting, nausea, upset stomach, rash, itching, fatigue, excessive pain, swelling of eyes, coating of the tongue, neurological symptoms and reduced blood counts are some of the adverse effects of taking Bactrim.[ad#co-1]

Mixing Bactrim with Alcohol

Notably, some of the side effects recorded with consumption of Bactrim are also seen after alcohol use which is why side effects of mixing Bactrim with alcohol are much more pronounced. Importantly you don’t need to be on a high to notice the side effects. Even consuming mouthwash containing alcohol and cough medicines can prove to be detrimental resulting in rapid heart rate, shortness of breath, headache, nausea and vomiting which can also lead to dehydration. So it’s better to check the label of these products before using them when you are on Bactrim.

However, alcohol does not reduce the efficacy of Bactrim which is why there is no need to worry about the treatment unless the dose is vomited out.

If you are an alcoholic or don’t have  control over drinking, it’s better to talk to your doctor and substitute Bactrim with some other medicine. However, keep in mind that alcohol does delay your recovery from any disease. In addition, alcohol impacts the liver and may also alter the way drugs, including antibiotics other than Bactrim, are metabolised. This may reduce the impact of these medicines and hence higher doses would be required which may also lead to multi-drug resistance.

So, the best way is to avoid alcohol until you feel fit and hearty again and are totally off medication. This will surely keep the side effects of mixing Bactrim with alcohol at bay.[ad#afterpost]